The BonesPro Reference Manual

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual

Справочное Руководство

В этой главе перечислены все доступные действия в интерфейсе пользователя с кратким описанием. Многие часто используемые функции могут быть использованы с помощью сочетаний клавиш вместо кнопки в свитках. Руководства перечислены кнопки по умолчанию, но вы можете изменить эти назначения в "настройка интерфейса пользователя" в меню 3ds Max.

BonesPro Mодификатор

В BonesPro модификатор является основным компонентом, BonesPro plug-in-а. Она используется для динамической деформации объекта в зависимости от анимации других объектов ("кости")("bones"), которые ей назначены. Применять BonesPro выполните следующие действия:

  1. Выберите объект, который вы хотите деформировать
  2. Перейдите на вкладку Modify и открыть выпадающий список, Modifier List
  3. Выберите BonesPro из списка. Это добавит BonesPro модификатор, к ванему объекту и откроет пользовательский интерфейс свитков BonesPro

Основные Свитки - "The Main Rollout"

Эта панель модификатора BonesPro всегда видима, если выбран объект в "стеке" модификаторов. В этой главе описаны все доступные функции главной BonesPro панели:

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual
Выбор подобъекта - "Sub-object Selection"

Эти кнопки используются для навигации между различными режимами выделения. В качестве альтернативы вы можете также использовать стандартный sub-object selection параметры в стек модификатор или по умолчанию 3ds Max сочетания клавиш для переключения между режимами выделения : CTRL-B переключение sub-object mode, вставка переключение между sub-object подбор режимов и 1 и 2 прыжка прямо в кости или vertex mode)

"Кости" - Bone - это переключает модификатор между Костью Bone sub-object mode и normal modifier выбор.

"Вершины" - Vertex - это переключает модификатор между Вершинами Vertex sub-object mode и normal modifier выбор

"Кости" - Bones

Это кнопки присваивания и показа костей.

Присвоить - Assign - Эта кнопка открывает диалоговое окно выбора, где можно выбрать объекты, которые вы хотите использовать в качестве кости для деформации объекта. Это могут быть кости с 3ds Max "bone system" костной системы, Character Studio скелеты, CAT rig или спроектированый вамми "скелет", или система костей. BonesPro автоматически проверяет, насколько кости выделены связано и имеют-ли корневой узел. Если корневой узел не найден BonesPro предложит вам вариант, чтобы привязать сетку(mesh) к этому корню.

Копировать - Copy - Эта кнопка используется для копирования кости назначений из другой объект, который имеет BonesPro модификатор. Используйте этот параметр, если у вас есть несколько объектов, которые имеют тот же набор костей, как, например, Персонаж(Character) и различные предметы его одежды.

Показать - Show - Показывает все кости, которые в данный момент скрыты.

Скрыть - Hide - Скрывает все выбранные кости. Это позволяет легче сосредоточиться на внешнем виде сетки.

Обновить - Refresh - Обновляет отображение геометрии.

Скрыть Сетку - Hide Mesh - Этот переключатель скрывает объект сетки от просмотра и открывает его снова.

Use stack - When this option is checked BonesPro considers mesh deformations from other modifiers in the stack beneath BonesPro.

Visualize - When this option is checked the strength and falloff for selected bones is displayed on the mesh by coloring its vertices in a range from red (maximal influence) to blue (no influence). If no bones are selected the visualization shows each vertex in the color of the bone that has the highest influence over it. Checking the option once makes the mesh translucent so that bones can be seen and selected easily. Checking the option a second time keeps the visualization active but with an opaque object. A third check returns to the default state with disavled visualization. This option can also be toggled with the keyboard shortcut ALT+V

BoneJiggler

These checkboxes control if the mesh is influenced by BoneJiggler modifiers. If you have no BoneJiggler modifiers applied to any bones you can ignore these options.

Inertia - When this option is checked the mesh deformation will be influenced by the Inertia settings of the bones that have BoneJiggler modifiers. This will cause bones to lag behind when accelerating and skid over and wobble back when decelerating

Oscillation - When this option is checked the mesh deformation will be influenced by the Oscillation settings of the bones that have BoneJiggler modifiers. This adds harmonic oscillations to the bone to create pulsing and rotating deformation effects.

ParaBones + MetaBones

These options control if ParaBones and MetaBones are influencing the mesh. If you have no ParaBones or MetaBones linked to any bones you can ignore these options.

On/Off Toggle - When checked the mesh deformations take ParaBones and MetaBones into consideration. While this is unchecked the mesh will ignore all ParaBones and MetaBones, even if they are linked to assigned bones. This option can also be toggled with the keyboard shortcut ALT+M

Hide - Hides all assigned ParaBones and MetaBones.

Show - Unhides all assigned ParaBones and MetaBones.

You can also use the keyboard shortcut ALT+O to toggle between the show and hide option for ParaBones and MetaBones

Bone Selection

This group contains various options to select bones. Bone selection works independently from the normal 3ds Max object/sub-object selection. This allows you to have assigned bones and mesh vertices selected and highlighted at the same time.

Select all Bones - Selects all bones that are assigned to the object.

Deselect all bones - Clears the object's bone selection.

Invert bone selection - Inverts the object's bone selection. All previously selected bones become unselected, all previously unselected bones become selected.

Interactive bone selection - This interactive selection allows you to pick bones with the mouse directly in the viewport. You can hold CTRL while clicking on bones to select multiple bones and ALT to unselect selected bones. The mouse cursor changes to a hand icon to display that this selection mode is active.

Interactive selection for unlinked bones - This is another interactive selection option. It selects all bones that are not linked to the bone you click on. The mouse cursor changes to a hand icon to display that this selection mode is active.

Select bones by name - Opens a 'Select by Name' dialog in which you can modify the bone selection.

Select parent bone - Selects the parent bones of all currently selected bones and deselect the current selection. This essentially moves the selection up in the link hierarchy. Keyboard shortcut: Page Up

Select parent bone hierarchy - Selects the whole parent hierarchy (parent, grandparent, etc.) for each currently bone, up to the root of the linked tree. Keyboard shortcut: CTRL + Page Up

Select child bones - Selects all child bones (but not grandchildren) of all currently selected bones while deselection the current selection. This essentially moves down in the link hierarchy. Keyboard shortcut: Page Down

Select child bone hierarchy - Selects the whole child hierarchy (children, grandchildren, etc.) for each currently selected bone. Keyboard shortcut: CTRL + Page Down

The Bones Rollout

This rollout allows you to modify the parameters of selected bones that control their general influence over the object's mesh. The rollout is displayed whenever you are in the bones sub-object mode. To enter the bones sub-object mode use the Bones button in the main rollout or the 3ds Max default sub-object selection options.

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual
Modify Bone Influence

Falloff - The Falloff spinner determines the influence radius of the bone. Increasing the influence radius causes vertices further away from the bone to be affected.

Strength - This spinner modifies the total influence a bone has on the mesh. Increasing the influence strength not only affects vertices within the bone's influence radius to a higher degree but it also increases the radius itself.

Real-Time - By default all changes to falloff and strength are immediately applied to the selected bones and the mesh deformation and viewport visualization change in real-time. If you are working with an object that has a very high polycount this might cause inconvenient slowdowns while you adjust spinners. For those cases you can disable real-time mode and modify bone settings without causing immediate viewport updates.

Apply - If Real-Time mode is disabled this button is used to apply changes to the spinners to the mesh. This is not necessary while real-time mode is enabled.

Sync - A bone can be part of different BonesPro modifiers that are applied to different objects. By default influence changes done to a bone only affect the current object and its BonesPro modifier. When you enable sync mode the changes to a bone's strength and falloff are automatically applied to that bone within all existing BonesPro modifiers.

The Vertices Rollout

The Vertex mode rollout allows you to fine tune the influence that individual bones have over individual vertices. It is displayed whenever you are in the vertex sub-object mode. To enter the vertex sub-object mode use the Vertex button in the main rollout or the 3ds Max default sub-object selection options.

The rollout is divided into 2 main groups. The first group (Select) offers various tools to make it easier to select specific groups of vertices in the mesh. The second group (Modify) offers you different ways to override the default influence (which depends on the bone's strength and falloff) for those selected vertices.

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual
Select

Shrink - Reduces the vertex selection area by deselecting the outermost vertices. If the selection size can no longer be reduced, the remaining vertices are deselected. Keyboard shortcut: -

Grow - Expands the selection area outward in all available directions. Keyboard shortcut: +

Ring - Selects a ring or rings based on the current vertex selection. Keyboard shortcut: ALT+R

Loop - Selects a loop or loops based on the current vertex selection. Keyboard shortcut: ALT+L

Invert vertex selection - Inverts the vertex selection. All previously selected vertices become unselected, all previously unselected vertices become selected.

Unlinked Vertices - Opens up a small menu that allows the user to make vertex selections in relation to the influences of bones that are not linked with the currently selected bones.

  • Select - Selects all vertices whose main influence comes from bones that are not linked to the current selection. Already selected vertices stay selected.
  • Deselect - Deselects all vertices whose main influence comes from bones that are not linked to the current selection.
  • Select only - Selects all vertices whose main influence comes from bones that are not linked to the current selection and selects all others.
  • Exclude - Excludes all vertices whose main influence comes from bones that are not linked to the current selection.
  • Include - Includes all vertices whose main influence comes from bones that are not linked to the current selection.

Inclusion - Opens up a small menu that allows the user to make vertex selections in relation to their inclusion state. Each of the available options allows a choice between Select (selects the affected vertices, already selected vertices stay selected) Deselect (deselects the affected vertices) and Select only (selects the affected vertices and deselects all others).

  • Excluded - Selects or deselects all Vertices that are explicitly excluded from at least one selected bone.
  • Included - Selects or deselects all Vertices that are included by at least one selected bone.
  • Maximum - Selects or deselects all Vertices whose most influential bone is selected.

Weights - This option displays a table that lists the current weights for each bone/vertex pair. Clicking the button gives you a choice between Select (selects the affected vertices, already selected vertices stay selected) Deselect (deselects the affected vertices) and Select only (selects the affected vertices and deselects all others).

By Influence - This option allows you to select all vertices that are influenced to at least the given percentage by one of the currently selected bones.

Ignore Backfacing - When this option is enabled vertices of backfacing polygons are not selected. This only applies to manual vertex selection in the viewport, not any of the influence or topology dependent selection options.

Select Element - When this option is enabled selecting vertices also selects all other vertices of the element automatically. This only applies to manual vertex selection in the viewport, not any of the influence or topology dependent selection options.

Modify

Exclude from bones - This option removes all influence from the selected bones for the selected vertices. Keyboard shortcut: CTRL+X

Include into bones - This option allows you to include the selected vertices back into the influence of the selected bones. Keyboard shortcut: SHIFT+X

Effects - Clicking this button brings up a popup dialog that lets you set certain bone influence effects:

  • Bones Limit - This option is used to adjust the overall number of bones that can affect a vertex. You can define if the change is applied to all vertices in the mesh or only the selected vertices.
  • Equalize - This option equalizes the influence that the selected bones have over the selected vertices. Please not that the whole influence for a vertex will be evenly distributed between the selected bones and all unselect bones will not influence the vertex at all anymore.
  • Select Vertices by Face ID - Select vertices by face ID enables you to create a selection set of vertices based on the Material ID number assigned to the faces associated with those vertices. You can set the ID number in the material ID spinner. The Set name window is used to give the selection name a name. You can also opt to clear the current selection of vertices with the Clear Selection checkbox.

Reset - This button lets you undo the weight and inclusion manipulations that have been done.

Set Weight - This control is used to set a specific forced weight for bone/vertex pairs. These explicit weights override the default weights that are based on natural proximity. The forced weights define the percentage of overall control that bones have over a vertex. If a vertex has 30% forced weight from bone 1, 30% forced weight from bone 2 and no forced weights on other bones then bones 1 and 2 will each have 30% control over the vertex. The remaining 40% of total influence are shared by the remaining (non-excluded) bones. The distribution of influence between those other bones is calculated based on the normal proximity based calculation. If the sum of forced weights for a vertex exceeds 100% the influence is distributed proportionally. If bone 1 has 60% forced weight influence over a vertex and bone 2 has 90% forced weight influence over it, the bones will share the influence over the vertex with a proportion of 60/90 or 2/3, which equals 40% weight for bone 1 and 60% weight for bone 2. In this case other bones will not influence the vertex at all, even if they are in close proximity and are not excluded.

Soft Selection - When Soft Selection is enabled, additional vertices around your selected vertices will be influenced with reduced weights to create a smooth transition from the forced vertices to the rest of the mesh. Adjust the spinner to modify the influence radius of the Soft Selection.

Edge Distance - This option limits the soft selection radius to only affect vertices that are within a certain distance of connected edges.

Custom Curve - Soft selection normally uses a linear falloff. For specific demands a customized falloff curve can be generated.

The Mirror Rollout

Since many bone rig setups include at least one symmetry axis, the mirror functionality that is provided by this rollout is an important time saver. You can transfer weight and inclusion settings from one bone to its counterpart. Symmetry for the mirror tool is determined by the position of bones at the moment at which you assign them to the BonesPro modifier. Therefore you can use the time slider to animate your rig without losing symmetry properties when the bones move out of alignment.

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual

Show in Viewports - While this option is checked the viewports will display helper gizmos that support you while you are setting up the mirror parameters. An orange outline represents the position and axis orientation of the plane along which the data will be mirrored. Bones which are identified as counterparts of selected bones are marked with an orange bounding box. This provides you with a real-time preview when you are adjusting the position of the mirror plane.

Mirror Plane - This option determines the orientation of the mirror plane.

Offset - If your mesh (or the region you want to mirror) is not oriented along the world coordinate system's root you can use this spinner to move the mirror to the intended position.

Threshold - If the bone rig is not exactly symmetrical or the mirror plane is not exactly positioned at the symmetry axis the mirror tool can have problems to identify the correct counterpart bones. You can use this spinner to adjust the sensitivity of the counterpart detection. Increase this value if the correct counterpart bones are not detected (and accordingly marked in the preview) correctly. If you increase this value too much the tool might identify the wrong bones as counterparts.

Mirror Bone Settings - Pressing this button will copy all settings for selected bones over to their mirror counterparts.

The Properties Rollout

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual

Export - Clicking on the Export button opens up a pop-up menu that enables you to export BonesPro data. There are three different formats available for export. For details about the export data refer to the chapter BonesPro Export File Format .

  • BonesPro Data Format (*.bpm) - This is a binary file format containing the whole bones data.
  • Structure - This exports the whole bone/vertex rig setup in a plain text ASCII file. It is a snapshot of the moment when the mesh was attached to the skeleton and contains no animation information.
  • Animation - The Animation file stores the bone and vertex data for a specified animation interval in a plain text ASCII file.

Import - This button launches a file open dialog box that lets you read in a previously created *.bpm file.

Skin Export - Places a new Skin modifier on top of the modifier stack and adds the BonesPro deformation data to it. Please take care that MetaBone, Parabone and BoneJiggler data can not be exported since there are no corresponding features available in the Skin modifier.

Skin Import - Retrieves the deformation data of the topmost Skin Modifier on the modifier stack and adjusts the BonesPro deformation accordingly.

About - Provides general information about BonesPro.

Options - This button opens the BonesPro options menu that allows you to modify the following settings:

  • Minimum Width - With this spinner you can enforce a minimum size for bone influence calculations. Normally the size of the bone object itself defines this size and the default is fine. In special cases when you work with bones that have no actual size this setting can be used to enforce a certain influence area for these bones.
  • Tolerance - This spinner defines the minimal influence a bone has to have over a vertex to exert any influence at all. The default value of 1% means that all bones with less than 1% influence over a vertex are ignored to speed up the calculation. These small influences have only negligible effect for the deformation quality and filtering them out speeds calculations up significantly. If you set this spinner to 0% influences of all bones will be considered to provide exact results.
  • Default Strength - This sets the default strength for bones that are not assigned an explicit strength override.
  • Default Falloff - This sets the default falloff for bones that are not assigned an explicit strength override.
  • Show information messages - This allows you to disable the information messages that BonesPro shows on certain actions.
  • Show confirmation messages - This allows you to disable the confirmation messages that BonesPro shows on certain actions. You should carefully consider if you really want to disable those messages because they usually warn about major changes to the skeleton rig setup.
  • Allow end result toggle - The 'show end result' toggle for the stack is usually disabled while you are working with BonesPro. Other modifiers above BonesPro can significantly change the mesh topology which makes edits based on vertex selections problematic to work with while the final result is shown in the viewport. But in some cases you might prefer to see the final result while modifying the mesh deformations and therefore you can enable the toggle through this option. Be advised that displayed vertices and selection options might be irritating while the end result is shown because all operations are based on the state without subsequent modifiers.
  • Colors - These color swatches allow you to select the colors of selected bones and control strength gradients of the viewport visualization.

ParaBones & MetaBones

ParaBones

ParaBones are special objects that are used to add additional control over mesh deformations. Any mesh object can be turned into a ParaBone by applying the corresponding modifier. ParaBones serve as actual physical resistance for the surface of the mesh that is deformed by BonesPro. You can use ParaBones to add muscle bulges or more definition for mesh bends in areas like shoulders, elbows and kneecaps by positioning appropriately formed objects under the skin mesh and have it stretch over them. A ParaBone object must be linked to a bone that has been assigned to the BonesPro modifier, otherwise it will be ignored. Please note that ParaBone effects are only applied when the ParaBones/MetaBones checkbox in the BonesPro modifier's main dialog is activated.

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual

Disabled - This checkbox defines whether the ParaBone is active or not. You can use it to deactivate the deformation effect of some ParaBones without having to deactivate the global option in the BonesPro main rollout.

Bounding Box Center - When this checkbox is active, the bounding box center of the ParaBone object is used as the center for the deformation created by the ParaBone. When inactive, the pivot point center is used.

Direction - These radio buttons enable you to define the direction in which the deformations are active. A good way to think of this is as a sphere. If you enabled the Up radio button, the top hemisphere of the sphere is active in deforming the mesh. The rest of the sphere is ignored. The default here is Omni.

Blend - This spinner enables you to adjust the amount of blending around the area of the mesh being deformed by the ParaBone. If the deformation caused by the ParaBone is extreme, you can add more blending between the deformed section of the mesh and the original mesh to avoid too hard edges.

Real-time - Automatically refreshes the display of the geometry when the ParaBone is modified.

Refresh - Refreshes the display of the geometry.

About - Provides general information about BonesPro.

MetaBones

MetaBones are a geometric primitive that works like a ParaBone. They have the shape of a sphere and are used the same way as a normal sphere with an attached ParaBone modifier would be. They are provided as a convenient alternative to normal ParaBones since spheres are the most commonly used ParaBone type and due to their fixed shape MetaBones are optimized for higher performance. A MetaBone object must be linked to a bone that has been assigned to the BonesPro modifier, otherwise it will be ignored. Please note that MetaBone effects are only applied when the ParaBones/MetaBones checkbox in the BonesPro modifier's main dialog is activated.

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual

Disabled - This checkbox defines whether the MetaBone is active or not. You can use it to deactivate the deformation effect of some MetaBones without having to deactivate the global option in the BonesPro main rollout.

Renderable - This checkbox tells 3ds Max whether the MetaBone is going to be visible in renders. By default, this is unchecked since normally the MetaBones are just used to deform the mesh but should not be visible.

Segments - Defines the number of segments in the sphere. This has only visual relevance in the viewport, the actual deformation calculation always considers the exact shape depending on the length, width and height parameters and the deformed mesh will look the same when the MetaBone has 4 segments or 400.

Size - These three spinners define the size of the MetaBone in the scene. Unlike a normal sphere primitive you can define the radius for each axis individually without having to scale the object.

Direction - These radio buttons enable you to define the direction in which the deformations are active. If you enabled the Up radio button, the top hemisphere of the sphere is active in deforming the mesh. The rest of the sphere is deleted. The default here is Omni. There are six radio buttons, one for each direction that is available. When a radio button is active, other than Omni, the MetaBone is drawn as a hemisphere.

Blend - This spinner enables you to adjust the amount of blending around the area of the mesh being deformed by the ParaBone. If the deformation caused by the MetaBone is extreme, you can add more blending between the deformed section of the mesh and the original mesh to avoid too hard edges.

Refresh - Refreshes the display of the geometry.

About - Provides general information about BonesPro.

BoneJiggler

The BoneJiggler modifier can be applied to bones to add motion effects to the mesh. The modifier offers two categories of motion effects: inertia and oscillation. The modifier effects never move the bone itself, they only influence the deformation of the mesh to which BonesPro is applied. Please note that BoneJiggler effects are only applied when the corresponding checkbox in the BonesPro main dialog is activated.

The BonesPro Reference Manual
The BonesPro Reference Manual
Inertia

The inertia controls allow you to add motion delays for the mesh deformation to simulate effects like moving parts with higher mass or wobbly after effects when a bone motion comes to a sudden stop. The inertia effect depends on the bone's motion speed.

Delay - This spinner specifies the delay with which the mesh should react to bone movements. This gives the impression of heavy, inert parts of the object. The delay is given in MAX time units and is animateable.

Skid - This spinner adds another dimension to the Delay parameter. When skid is greater than 0%, the skin is supposed to be even more inert, it can even move beyond the point where bones stopped, if the stop was sudden. When the Skid is active, the Delay parameter is used to estimate the speed of the bone. This parameter is animateable.

Oscillation

The oscillation controls are used to simulate rhythmical movements that are independent from the bone's motion. This can for example be used to create effects like breathing characters. The settings can be configured independently for local X, Y and Z axis of the bone.

Amplitude - This spinner determines the magnitude of the oscillation effect and is set as a percentage of the bone's length. This parameter is animateable

Period - This spinner sets the duration of one oscillation (back swing + fore swing). The period is given in Max time units and is animateable

Shift - This spinner determines the starting point during the oscillation period and can be set as a Value from 0 to 360. This parameter is animateable.

Throbbing - This determines the percentage of the oscillation that is implemented as throbbing (scale distortion instead of positional oscillation). If Throbbing is 30%, then 70% of the amplitude is given to positional oscillation of the bone, and 30% to its scaling. The parameter is animateable and can be set from 0% (position only) to 100% (scaling only)

About - Provides general information about BonesPro.

Keyboard Shortcuts

The most commonly used actions during the workflow are conveniently available through keyboard shortcuts.
All shortcuts can be edited through the default 3ds Max user interface customization options under the group name 'BonesPro'.

Action Keyboard Shortcut Switch to bone subobject mode 1 Switch to vertex subobject mode 2 Toggle interactive bone selection mode SPACE Select child bone PGDOWN Select all child bones CTRL + PGDOWN Select parent bone PGUP Select all parent bones CTRL + PGUP Select vertex loop ALT + L Select vertex ring ALT + R Grow vertex selection NumPad + Shrink vertex selection NumPad - Exclude selection CTRL + X Include selection SHIFT + X Toggle vizualization mode ALT + V Toggle Parabones and Metabones ALT + M Show/Hide Parabones and Metabones ALT + O

The BonesPro Proxy Plug-in

The BonesPro proxy is a modifier plug-in that can be downloaded separately from the BonesPro homepage. This modifier is freely available and requires no purchase or licensing. It can read BonesPro data that's saved in a 3ds Max file and deform the mesh accordingly but it has no user interface.

This modifier allows users without a valid BonesPro license to work with 3ds Max files that contain meshes which have been rigged with BonesPro.

Important: The BonesProProxy shares the same Class ID with the actual BonesPro plug-in. Therefore you will receive an error when you try to load the actual BonesPro plug-in and the BonesProProxy together. Please make sure that you have only one of these two in your 3ds Max plug-in paths.

2013-11-12


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